Poverty and Environment Network (PEN)

Forests; Poverty; Household surveys; Household income
English
CIFOR
Department for International Development (DFID)
2015
CIFOR
Survey data; Spatial data

The Poverty and Environment Network (PEN) was launched in September 2004 by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) with the aim of collecting uniform socio-economic and environmental data at household and village levels in rural areas of developing countries.

The data presented here, produced by CIFOR, were collected by 33 PEN partners (mainly PhD students) and comprise 8,301 households in 334 villages located in 24 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

The primary objectives of PEN are: 1) To undertake a comprehensive global-comparative analysis of the role of forests and environmental income in preventing and reducing rural poverty, built on a centrally coordinated pan-tropical data bank with high-quality primary household and village data collected though PEN; 2) to elaborate recommendations for tangible forest-poverty interventions, and feed them into national and global policy processes; and 3) to enhance the ability of project partners in using best-practice methods for conducting income-accounting rural household surveys, and to suggest improved research methods for future studies of environmental incomes and rural livelihoods.

To view CIFOR’s PEN website, click here.

Quality assurance

FTA’s PEN dataset has been peer-reviewed to ensure that it meets CGIAR’s ‘quality of research for development’ (QoR4D) framework. This framework, developed with strong methodological contributions from FTA, comprises criteria for relevance, credibility, legitimacy and effectiveness.

Relevance

The PEN dataset has been independently evaluated as contributing to a well-defined research question of importance to forests, trees and agroforestry, and to FTA’s Theory of Change. A critical feature of the PEN research project was to collect detailed, high quality data on forest use. The PEN dataset also contributes new knowledge on forests, trees and agroforestry, particularly related to livelihoods, land use and forest incomes.

Credibility

The credibility of the PEN dataset has been externally verified. The data belongs to an FTA partner – the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) – and can be used by FTA.

The PEN dataset has been generated through a rigorous research design; it is complete, curated and cleaned. The dataset, the underlying methods and related findings are robust, and sources of knowledge are dependable and sound. For more information on the research design for this dataset, see the following publication:

• Angelsen, A., Larsen, H.O., Lund, J.F., Smith-Hall, C., Wunder, S., (eds.) 2011. Measuring livelihoods and environmental dependence: Methods for research and fieldwork. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17528/cifor/003341. DOI: 10.17528/cifor/003341 http://dx.doi.org/10.17528/cifor/003341.

Legitimacy

The PEN dataset has been assessed as meeting the criteria for legitimacy. Data have been collected following both Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) and the research ethics guidelines of FTA, ensuring the underlying research process is fair and ethical and perceived as such, including proper representation of all involved and consideration of interests and perspectives of intended users. Gender considerations, and thus a gender lens, is reflected in the data collected.

Effectiveness

The PEN dataset and related products and services are accessible and well positioned for uptake and use (by researchers and stakeholders), including capacity development and proper support to the enabling environment. PEN data on the FTA website are also available and accessible on the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) interoperable repository site, Dataverse. Data are also described by sufficient metadata (CG-Core).

If you use the PEN data in any way, we would be happy to hear from you and support the visibility of your work by publishing a data story on your research. To submit a data story, click here.

Terms of use
Credit

The PEN Global Dataset applies the Community Norms of Dataverse, where this dataset is originally deposited. These Community Norms, as well as good scientific practices, expect that proper credit is given via citation. No waiver has been selected for this dataset and it is subject to the relevant licencing agreements.

Licensing

These data and documents are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. You may copy, distribute and transmit the data as long as you acknowledge the source through proper data citation.

Citation

PEN, 2016, “CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network (PEN) global dataset”, doi:10.17528/CIFOR/DATA.00021, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), V2.

Please see the individual data files for file-specific citations.

Title

CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network (PEN) global dataset (Version 2.3)

Author

PEN (Center for International Forestry Research [CIFOR])

Citation

PEN, 2016, “CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network (PEN) global dataset”, doi:10.17528/CIFOR/DATA.00021, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), V2.

Dataset persistent ID

doi:10.17528/CIFOR/DATA.00021

Contact

Email Us

Description

The PEN network was launched in September 2004 by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) with the aim of collecting uniform socio-economic and environmental data at household and village levels in rural areas of developing countries.

The data presented here, produced by CIFOR, were collected by 33 PEN partners (mainly PhD students) and comprise 8,301 households in 334 villages located in 24 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Three types of quantitative surveys were conducted:
1. Village surveys (V1, V2)
2. Annual household surveys (A1, A2)
3. Quarterly household surveys (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4)

The village surveys (V1, V2) collected data that were common to all or showed little variation among households. The first village survey, V1, was conducted at the beginning of the fieldwork to obtain background information on the villages. The second survey, V2 was conducted at the end of the fieldwork period to collect information for the 12-month period covered by the surveys.

The household surveys were grouped into two categories: quarterly surveys (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) to collect income information, and, household surveys (A1, A2) to collect all other household information.

A critical feature of the PEN research project was the collection of detailed, high-quality data on forest use. This was done through quarterly income household surveys, for two reasons: first, short recall periods increase accuracy and reliability and, second, quarterly data allows us to document seasonal variation in (forest) income and thus, inter alia, help us understand to what extent forests act as seasonal gap fillers.

There are three partners (10101, 10203 and 10301), who, because of various particular circumstances, only conducted three of the four income surveys. In addition, 598 of the households missed out on one of the quarterly surveys, due to, for example, temporal absence or sickness, or insecurity in the area. These are still included in the database, while households missing more than one quarter were excluded.

Two other household surveys were conducted. The first annual household survey (A1) collected basic household information (demographics, assets, forest-related information) and was done at the beginning of the survey period while the second (A2) collected information for the 12-month period covered by the surveys (e.g. on risk management) and was done at the end of the survey period. Note, however, that we did not collect any systematic data on the time allocation of households: while highly relevant for many analyses, we believed that it would be too time-consuming a component to add to our standard survey questions.

The project is further described and discussed in two edited volumes by Angelsen et al. (2011) (describes in particular the methods used) and Wunder et al. (2014) (which includes six articles based on the PEN project).

Tell us your data story

PEN data files

Displaying 1 - 12
2016
List of variables and names. This file provides a list of explanations for the abbreviations used in the datasets from the first annual household survey (A1).
2016
List of variables and labels. This file provides a list of explanations for the abbreviations used in the datasets from the second annual household survey (A2).
2016
It includes codes for yes/no answers, products, forest markets, land categories, forest categories, tenure regimes, modes of transport, types of wage work, units of measurement, household assets, agricultural inputs, livestock, livestock products, livestock inputs and income sources.
2016
This file provides a list of explanations for the abbreviations used in the datasets from the second village survey (V2). .
Displaying 1 - 39
2016

This file provides information on how, when and where the household surveys were conducted for the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Day of interview; Month of interview; Year of interview; Interviewed by; Day questionnaire entered; Month questionnaire entered; Year questionnaire entered; Name of person that entered the data; Distance to village center in mins; Distance to village center in kms; PEN partner ID; Elevation in meters

File name: hhda1_a_id_2.tab

2016

This file provides information on members of households other than the household head in the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Household member PID; Relation to household head; Year born; Sex of member; Number of years completed (education)

File name: hhda1_b1_hhc.tab

2016

This file provides information on households and household heads in the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Marital status; How long ago household was formed; Was household head born in village; If head not born in village, how long has he been in village; Does household head belong to the largest ethnic group/caste in village

File name: hhda1_b.tab

2016

This file provides information on land ownership and crop ranks in the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Land category; Area; Ownership; Main crop rank 1; Main crop rank 2; Main crop rank 3

File name: hhda1_c1_land.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether households in the first annual household survey (A1) owned land.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Did the household own any land

File name: hhda1_c_1.tab

2016

This file provides information on implements in the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Implement; Number of units owned; Implement total value

File name: hhda1_d2_imp.tab

2016

This file provides information on home ownership, the type of house owned, and the financial situation (amount of debt and savings) of participants in the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Do you own a house; Wall material; Floor material; Roof material; Did household own any implements; Size of house in m2; Savings in banks, credit associations, or savings clubs; Savings in non-productive assets, eg. gold; Outstanding debt

File name: hhda1_d_asa.tab

2016

This file provides information on the proximity of households to natural or managed forests, and the firewood collection activities of households in the first annual household survey (A1).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Distance to nearest natural or managed forest in kms; Distance to nearest natural or managed forest in minutes; Does household collect firewood; Hours spent collecting firewood per week; Does household spend more or less time collecting firewood than 5 years ago; Has availability of firewood changed of the past 5 years; Response to forest resource decline rank 1; Response to forest resource decline rank 2; Response to forest resource decline rank 3; Has household planted any woodlots over past five years; Reason for planting trees rank 1; Reason for planting trees rank 2; Reason for planting trees rank 3.

File name: hhda1_e_frb.tab

2016

This file provides information on participation in forest user groups (FUGs).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Does any household member belong to a FUG; Does any household member regularly attend a FUG; Who regularly attends the FUG; How many person days are spent on FUG activities; Does household make any cash payments/contributions to the FUG; How much was paid in the last 12 months; Did you receive any payments from the FUG; How would you receive in the last 12 months; Why did you join FUG rank 1; Why did you join FUG rank 2; Why did you join FUG rank 3; How would you say FUG has affected benefits from forests; Why don’t you participate in FUG rank 1; Why don’t you participate in FUG rank 2; Why don’t you participate in FUG rank 3.

File name: hhda1_f_fug.tab

2016

This file provides information on how, when and where the household surveys were conducted for the second annual household survey (A2).

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Day of interview (number); Month of interview (number); Year of interview; Interviewed by; Day questionnaire entered; Month questionnaire entered; Year questionnaire entered; Name of person that entered data; PEN partner ID.

File name: hhda2_a_id.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants in the second annual household survey (A2) had experienced any income losses, and the nature of these losses.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Event; Severity of event; How did you cope with income loss 1; How did you cope with income loss 2; How did you cope with income loss 3; Estimated income loss or costs

File name: hhda2_b1_cue.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants in the second annual household survey (A2) experienced any major crises or unexpectedly large expenditures.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Has the household faced any major crisis or unexpectedly large expenditures.

File name: hhda2_b.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type of service a participant in the second annual household survey (A2) may have provided, whether they have received a payment for their service, and if so, how much they had received.

Variables: Site ID; Principal service; Have received; If yes, amount received; Household ID; Village ID.

File name: hhda2_c1_fs.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants in the second annual household survey (A2) had received any income from forest services.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Has the household received any cash from forest services.

File name: hhda2_c.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants in the second annual household survey (A2) had cleared land, how they had used the cleared land, and if they had planted crops on any cleared land. It also provides information on the type of crop that may have been planted.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Did the household clear any forest land in the past 12 months; How much forest was cleared; What was the cleared forest used for 1; What was the cleared forest used for 2; What was the cleared forest used for 3; If used for crop, principal crop 1; If used for crop, principal crop 2; If used for crop, principal crop 3; Type of forest cleared; If secondary forest, age of forest; Ownership status of the forest cleared; How far from house was the cleared land located; Has the household cleared forest over the last 5 years; If yes, how much land has been cleared; How much land has been left abandoned over the last 5 years.

File name: hhda2_d_fcl.tab

2016

This file provides information on how satisfied participants in the second annual household survey (A2) are with their life, including food production and income, and their perceptions of how well off they are. It also provides information on participant perceptions on their community and the people in their community.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; How satisfied are you with your life over the past 12 months; Has household food production and income over the past 12 months been sufficient; Compared with other households in the village, how well off is your household; How well off is your household compared with the situation 5 years ago; Main reason for change rank 1; Main reason for change rank 2; Main reason for change rank 3; Do you consider your village (community) to be a good place to live; In general, do you trust people in the village (community); Can you get help from other people in the village (community) if you are in need.

File name: hhda2_e_wpsc.tab

2016

This file provides information on how reliable the information provided by participants in the second annual household survey (A2) is considered to be.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Did the respondent make you smile or laugh; How well off do you consider the household to be compared to other households; Generally, how reliable is the information provided by this household; How reliable is the information on forest collection provided by the household; Do you think the information overestimates or underestimates the actual forest use.

File name: hhda2_f_enum.tab

2016

This file presents information on when and by whom data was collected, checked and entered for the quarterly surveys.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Day of interview; Month of interview; Year of interview; Interviewed by; Day checked; Month checked; Year checked; Checked by; Day questionnaire entered; Month questionnaire entered; Year questionnaire entered; Name of person that entered data; Village code; District code; PID 1; PID 2; PEN partner ID.

File name: qtr_a.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type and quantity of forest products collected by participants, and where and how they sell their forest products, and the income this generates. The file also includes information on fuelwood use and cost.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Forest product; Collected by whom; Land type; Ownership; Quantity collected; Unit; Own use; Sold; Price per unit; Type of market; Gross value; Transport/Marketing costs; Purchased inputs and hired labour; Net income; Forest product imputed; Annual subsistence fuelwood use greater than 2000 kgs/ae so capped; Fuelwood price (ppp/kg) greater than 15 cents so capped at 15 cents; Fuelwood price (ppp/kg) less than 1 cent raised to 1 cent.

File name: qtr_b_fup.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants in the quarterly surveys had collected unprocessed forest products.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Did household collect any unprocessed forest products in the past month.

File name: qtr_b.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type of forest product produced, how much, by whom, how it was used and/or sold, and the income generated.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Forest product; Who in the household did the work; Quantity produced; Unit; Own use; Sold; Price per unit; Type of market; Gross value; Purchased inputs and hired labour; Transport/Marketing costs; Net income; Forest product aggregate code; Missing price imputed

File name: qtr_c1_fpr.tab

2016

This file provides information on the use and/or production of forest products by participants in the quarterly household surveys.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Did household produce any processed forest products in the past month; Did household use any unprocessed forest products to produce final products in the past month.

File name: qtr_c.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type of fish caught, the quantity, the price it is sold for and the net income for selling fish.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Type of fish; Land type; Ownership; Total catch (kg); Own use; Sold; Price per kg; Gross value; Costs (inputs, hired labour, marketing); Net income; Missing price imputed

File name: qtr_d1_fish.tab

2016

This file compiles information on the type of fish, total catches, and the price, value and costs related to selling fish for each quarterly survey

Variables: Site ID; Quarter; Type of fish; From where; Total catch (kg); Own use; Sold; Price per kg; Gross value; Costs (inputs, hired labour, marketing)

File name: qtr_d2_aqua.tab

2016

This file provides information on household collection or production of products and whether, and for how much these products are sold, as well as net income received for products.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Type of product; Land type; Ownership; Quantity collected; Unit; Own use; Sold; Price per unit; Gross value; Costs (inputs, hired labour, marketing); Net income; Type of product aggregate code; Missing price imputed.

File name: qtr_d3_env.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants caught fish or any other wild products in the last 3 months.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Did household catch any fish from the wild in the past 3 months; Did household catch any fish from ponds in the past 3 months; Did household collect any other wild products in the past 3 months

File name: qtr_d.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type of work, the amount of work, and wage rates for survey participants.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Household member PID; Type of work; Days worked past month; Daily wage rate; Total wage income; Missing price imputed

File name: qtr_f1_wage.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants are involved in any business, the type of business, the costs involved, their net income and their current capital stock value.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; What is your type of business; Gross income (sales); Purchased inputs; Own non-labour inputs; Hired labour; Transport and Marketing costs; Capital costs (repair, maintenance etc.); Other costs; Net income; Current value of capital stock

File name: qtr_f2_biz.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether survey participants have received paid work in the past month, or been involved in any type of business

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Has any household member had paid work over the past month; Is the household involved in any type of business

File name: qtr_f.tab

2016

This file provides information on crop production, crop use, crop sales, price and value.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Crop code; Total production; Unit of production; Own use of crop product; Crop product sold (inc. barter); Crop product price per unit; Crop total value; Crop code aggregate code; Missing price imputed

File name: qtr_h1_crop.tab

2016

This file provides information on crop input quantity, unit, price and costs.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Crop input code; Crop input quantity; Crop input unit; Crop input price per unit; Crop input total costs; Missing price imputed

File name: qtr_h2_cinp.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether households harvested any crops in the last quarter, and whether they used any inputs for crop production.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Did household harvest any crops in the past 3 months; Did household use any inputs for crop production in the past 3 months

File name: qtr_h.tab

2016

This file provides information on the livestock owned by survey participants.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Livestock; Livestock beginning number; Livestock sold (inc. barter); Livestock slaughtered for own use; Livestock lost (theft, died); Livestock bought or gift received; Livestock new from own stock; Livestock end number; Livestock price per unit; Livestock total value

File name: qtr_i1_liv.tab

2016

This file provides information on animal products and services, the price of these products and services and their total value.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Animal product/Service; Production; Unit of production; Own use of animal product; Animal product sold (inc. barter); Animal product price per unit; Animal product total value; Missing price imputed.

File name: qtr_i2_ani.tab

2016

This file provides information on animal input quantity, units, price and total costs.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Input code; Animal input quantity; Animal input unit; Animal input price per unit; Animal input total costs; Missing price imputed

File name: qtr_i3_linp.tab

2016

This file provides information on the grazing land used and/or owned by survey participants.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Type of grazing land type; Ownership of grazing land; Approximate share

File name: qtr_i4_fod.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether survey participants had produced animals, had any inputs in livestock production, or grazed animals or brought fodder in the last 3 months.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Did household own any adult animals in the past 3 months; Did household produce any animal products/service in the past 3 months; Did household use any inputs in livestock production in the past 3 months; Did household graze animals or bring fodder to their farm in the past 3 months

File name: qtr_i.tab

2016

This file provides information on the sources of income for survey participants.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Income type; Total income received in past 3 months

File name: qtr_j_oth.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether survey participants had any other sources of income in the past 3 months.

Variables: Site ID; Household ID; Village ID; Quarter; Did household have any other income source in the past 3 months

File name: qtr_j.tab

Displaying 1 - 18
2016

This file provides information on when, with whom and by whom meetings were conducted, when questionnaires were administered, and when data was entered for the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Year meetings with officials held; Month meetings with officials held; Day meetings with officials held; Meeting with officials by; Year village/focus group meetings held; Day village/focus group meetings held; Village/focus group meeting by; Year of other interviews; Month of other interviews; Day of other interviews; Interviewed by; Year questionnaire entered; Month questionnaire entered; Day questionnaire entered; Name of person that entered the data

File name: v1_a_geo.tab

2016

This file provides information on village size, changes to the population over a 10-year period, migration flows, and the number of different groups within villages participating in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Year village established; Current population of the village; How many households live currently in this village; Total population of the village 10 years ago; How many households lived in this village 10 years ago; How many persons living here now moved to the village in the past 10 years (in-migration); How many persons have left the village in the past 10 years (out-migration); How many different groups (ethnic groups, tribes or castes) are living in the village.

File name: v1_b_dem.tab

2016

This file provides information on access to electricity, tap water, financial institutions, usable roads, river access, and location and means of transport to district markets for participants in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; How many households in the village have access to electricity (from public or private); How many households in the village have access to (= use) piped tap water; How many households have access to formal credit (government or private bank); Are informal credit institutions such as savings clubs and money lenders present; Is there a health centre in the village; Does the village have at least one road useable by cars during all seasons; Distance in kilometres to the nearest road useable during all seasons; Is there are river within the village boundaries that is navigable during all seasons; Distance in kilometres to the nearest market for major consumption goods; Distance in kilometres to the nearest market where agricultural products are sold; Most common means of transport to where the agricultural products are sold; Distance in minutes to the nearest market where agricultural products are sold; Most common means of transport to nearest market where agricultural products are sold; Distance in kilometres to the nearest district market where forest products are sold; Distance in minutes to the nearest district market where forest products are sold; Most common means of transport to nearest district market where forest products are sold

File name: v1_c_inf.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type of land, and land ownership in terms of state, community and private ownership areas for participants in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Land category; Total area (ha); State ownership (ha); Community ownership (ha); Private ownership (ha); Open access (ha)

File name: v1_d1_land.tab

2016

This file provides information on forest type, who owns the land, who uses the land and what products are produced in villages in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Type of forest; Ownership; Approximate area; Main users rank 1; Main users rank 2; Main users rank 3; Main product rank 1; Main product rank 2; Main product rank 3

File name: v1_d2_for.tab

2016

This file provides information on the type of management practiced by participants in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Type of management; Management code

File name: v1_d3_mgt.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether villages in the first village survey (V1) practice some form of forest management, and whether the village has a forest.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Does village practice any form of active or deliberate forest management; Does the village have a forest

File name: v1_d.tab

2016

This file provides information on MIP availability, reasons for possible increases and decreases, and actions to increase benefits from MIP for participants in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Forest resource base category; Most important product category; Has availability of MIP changed over the past 5 years; Rank 1 reason for decline in availability of MIP; Rank 2 reason for decline in availability of MIP; Rank 3 reason for decline in availability of MIP; Rank 1 reason for increase in availability of MIP; Rank 2 reason for increase in availability of MIP; Rank 3 reason for increase in availability of MIP; Rank 1 action to increase benefits from MIP; Rank 2 action to increase benefits from MIP; Rank 3 action to increase benefits from MIP

File name: v1_e_frb.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether villages in the first village survey (V1) have a forest resource base.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Does the village have a forest resource base

File name: v1_e.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether there are customary rules or governmental regulations regarding forest use, and whether these are respected or enforced in the villages participating in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Forest institutions category; Most important product category; In what type of forest do you get MIP; What is the ownership status of this forest; Are there customary rules regulating the use of the MIP in the village; Are the customary rules regarding forest use enforced/respected by the population; Are there government rules that regulate forest use; Are the government rules enforced/respected by the members of the village; Do the villages require any permission to harvest the MIP; Who issues this permit

File name: v1_f_fi.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether villages in the first village survey (V1) have forest institutions.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Does the village have any forest institutions

File name: v1_f.tab

2016

This file provides information on the management of forest user groups and their management rules, and whether these rules have been adhered to in the villages participating in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; FUG; When was the group formed; How was the group formed; Is the FUGs main purpose related to the management of a particular forest area; If for a forest product, what is the (main) product; How many members are there in the group; How many times per year does the FUG have meetings; Does the group have a written management plan; Setting rules for use; Monitoring and policing; Silviculture and management; Harvesting forest products; Selling forest products; Specify other; Other; Has any development project been implemented in the village over the past 5 years; Has anyone in the village been violating the rules of the FUG over the past 12 months; What type of penalties; Which group of forest users have most commonly been violating the rules over the past 12 months; How effective is FUG in ensuring sustainable and equitable forest use.

File name: v1_g_fug.tab

2016

This file provides information on the number of forest user groups in the villages surveyed in the first village survey (V1).

Variables: Site ID: Village ID; How many forest user groups are there in the village.

File name: v1_g.tab

2016

This file provides information on when, with whom and by whom meetings were conducted, when questionnaires were administered, and when data was entered for the second village survey (V2). It also includes information on rainfall.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Year meetings with officials held; Month meetings with officials held; Day meetings with officials held; Meeting with officials held by; Year village/focus group meetings held; Month village/focus group meetings held; Day village/focus group meeting held; Village/focus group meeting by; Year of other interviews; Month of other interviews; Day of other interviews; Interviewed by; Year questionnaire entered; Month questionnaire entered; Day questionnaire entered; Name of person that entered the data; What was the total rainfall in the village for the past 12 months

File name: v2_a_geo.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether participants in the second village survey (V2) had experienced any crises in the past 12 months, what their daily wage rates are for males and females, and the price of staple foods and good agricultural land.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Has the village faced any crises over the past 12 months; Peak daily wage rate for males; Peak daily wage rate for females; Slack daily wage rate for males; Slack daily wage rate for females; What is the main staple food in the village; Price of a kg of the main staple food during the past 12 months before the main …; Price of a kg of the main staple food during the past 12 months after the main …; Sale value of one hectare of good agricultural land

File name: v2_bc.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether villages in the second village survey (V2) had faced crises.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Crisis category; Has the village faced crisis.

File name: v2_b_risk.tab

2016

This file provides information on payments and the amount received for participants in the second village survey (V2).

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Payment related to; Amount received

File name: v2_d_pay.tab

2016

This file provides information on whether villages in the second village survey (V2) had received any benefits from forest services or forest related support over the past 12 months.

Variables: Site ID; Village ID; Has the village received any benefits related to forest services over the past 12 months; Has the village received any forest-related support over the past 12 months

File name: v2_d.tab

PEN resources

Jiao, X., Smith-Hall, C. and Theilade, I. (2016). Economic land concessions decrease rural household incomes in Cambodia. Policy Brief No. 02, Copenhagen Centre for Development Research, University of Copenhagen.

Smith-Hall,C., Larsen, H.O., Pouliot, M., Chhetri, B.B.K., Rayamajhi, S., Meilby, H., and Puri, L. (2015). Environmental resource income is important for earthquake-hit rural households. Policy Brief No.01, Copenhagen Centre for Development Research, University of Copenhagen. 

Larsen, H.O., Rayamajhi, S., Smith-Hall, C., Treue, T., Meilby, H., Chhetri, B.B.K., Puri, L., Pokharel, R., Tiwari, K.R., Rutt, R., Walelign, S.Z. and Pouliot, M. (2015). Community forests can contribute more to rural Nepalese livelihoods. Policy Brief No. 02, Copenhagen Centre for Development Research, University of Copenhagen.

Reyes-García, V., Pyhälä, A., Guéze, M., Angelsen, A., Díaz-Reviriego, I., Fernández-Llamazares, Á., Gallois, S., Napitupulu L. (2015). “Local perceptions of wellbeing. Insights from the Global South” (LEK-Project Policy brief #3). Available at http://icta.uab.cat/etnoecologia/lek.

Lund, J.F., Chhetri, B.B.K. and Nielsen, Ø.J. (2012). The Public Finance Potential of Community Forestry: Evidence from Nepal.  Development Brief Policy No. 1 5, January 2012, Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Koy, R., Lon, P. and Ouch C. (2011). Evaluating Household Forest Dependency: A case from Three Study Sites in Cambodia. Policy brief, No. 13. CDRI, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. http://www.cdri.org.kh/webdata/policybrief/2011/forestdependency1113e.pdf.

Angelsen, A., Fisher, M., Jumbe, C., Shively, G., & Sserunkuuma R. (2008). Using natural capital to manage risk and reduce poverty. BASIS Brief. BB2008-02: Natural capital. February 2008. http://www.basis.wisc.edu.


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