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Storytelling guide illustrates how local practices can contribute to landscape restoration

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The book’s illustrations attractively portray life on the land in Sumba, Indonesia. Image by ICRAF

Researchers in Indonesia have produced an illustrated book to help farmers better understand research results.

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) recently published an illustrated storytelling guide, Menanam pohon di bukit batu (Planting trees on a stony hill), to help spread knowledge of land-restoration and food-security techniques developed by researchers and farmers in Haharu District on the island of Sumba.

“The Sumba community is similar to many others in Indonesia,” explained Elok Mulyoutami, one of the authors, who is a gender specialist and social scientist with ICRAF Indonesia. “They have little interest in reading. This presented a challenge for us. We wanted to share more widely the techniques for land restoration and improved farming that we had developed together with farmers. 

“Observing the cultural practices of the people of the district, we realized that storytelling was very popular and could perhaps become the best way of disseminating our research results, providing agricultural advice and raising people’s awareness of how to better manage their natural resources.”

Read the book: Menanam Pohon di Bukit Batu (Planting trees on a stony hill)

The book, in plain Indonesian designed to be read aloud, uses three children walking home from school in the heat to tell the stories of reforesting their land. At home, one child asks his grandfather why their island home was so hot and dry; if there were more trees wouldn’t it be cooler and fresher? His grandfather’s answers make the boy feel optimistic that Sumba would once again be forested.

The second child asks her mother about the maize they grow and learns how the stalks are used to restore soil fertility in the traditional hillside terracing system that also includes fertilizer trees. Her mother also explains how men and women work together in the fields and learn new skills and knowledge from attending training courses that helps them better manage and protect their harsh yet fragile land.

“Gender equity is relatively well established in Sumba society,” explained Mulyoutami. “Although complicated by class and caste issues. It was important that the book featured women and men collaborating according to their abilities, as happens in reality.”

A seasonal calendar developed by the researchers and farmers is faithfully reproduced in the book. Image by ICRAF

The third child vows to become a smart and good farmer, sharing knowledge and skills with others so that many people can plant more and more trees to ensure that the savanna will become a forest again.

Sumba was largely deforested by the early 2000s as individuals and companies alike sought valuable sandalwood and other indigenous species. Conditions now are harsh and life is difficult. The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and partners, Wahana Visi Indonesia and Lutheran World Relief, supported by the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, have been working together for several years on the Indonesia Rural Economic Development program to help farmers overcome the great challenges to their very survival.

“The idea of using a children’s storybook approach to explain our research results came from the project’s specific concern for youth and children,” said Mulyoutami. “Wahana Visi Indonesia, our partner, had produced children’s books before so we were able to draw on their expertise and had their full support.”

Read also: From savannah to forest: Women’s roles in land restoration in Sumba

Working with Jakarta-based illustrator, Resi Desta, designer Riky Hilmansyah and co-author Tikah Atikah, Mulyoutami gathered technical know-how and cultural nuance from ICRAF staff members who also worked in Sumba — Iskak Nugky Ismawan, Erik Maramba, Asep Suryadi, Nikolas Hanggawali, Gerhard Sabastian, Riyandoko, Suci Anggrayani, Pratiknyo Purnomosidhi and Lia Dahlia — that resulted in a bright, accessible and accurate book that has been well received by the target audiences.

“It’s important to underline that this book is not only for children,” said Mulyoutami. “It’s also useful for agricultural extensionists, rural advisers and farmers to give them a good grounding in how local practices can contribute to restoration.”

The communities of Haharu are committed to expanding their knowledge and restoring their land to its once fertile and productive state. A book such as this is one more tool to use to help reach that goal.

By Rob Finlayson, originally published at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World. 

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Menanam Pohon di Bukit Batu (Planting trees on a stony hill)

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Buku panduan bergambar dan berceritaini merupakan sebuah alat sederhana untuk menyampaikan pesan dari hasil-hasil dokumentasiyang perlu diketahui khalayak banyak. Substansi buku ini berasal dari hasilpendokumentasian pengetahuan lokal dan gender serta kegiatan pelatihan daripetani ke petani yang dilakukan di Kecamatan Haharu, Sumba Timur, Nusa TenggaraTimur. Kondisi alam di tanah Haharu unik dengan dominasi padang sabana dantanah berbatu. Tidak hanya menjadi (semi) panduan yang berguna untuk penyuluhdan petani penyuluh, buku ini menjadi bahan bacaan untuk anak-anak sekolahdasar maupun tingkat menengah yang berpotensi untuk mengembangkan modelpengelolaan sumber daya alam yang sesuai dengan kondisi alam setempat. Penyusunanpanduan bergambar dan bercerita ini dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan minat bacamasyarakat, mengingat budaya masyarakat yang lebih banyak mendengar danberbicara daripada membaca. Khasanah pengetahuan lokal khas Sumba Timur iniperlu diketahui masyarakat luas, terutama para pihak yang berkenan mendukungprogram pembangunan yang masih sangat diperlukan untuk meningkatkan penghidupandan kehidupan masyarakat Sumba Timur.

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From savannah to forest: Women’s roles in land restoration in Sumba

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A high savannah view is seen in Sumba, Indonesia. Photo by R. Finlayson/ICRAF
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Sumbanese women are renowned for their strength of character. Photo by R. Finlayson/ICRAF

The unique knowledge of the women of East Sumba, Indonesia, is being recognized in the restoration of their deforested land.

The high plateaus of East Sumba in Indonesia, especially on the way to Haharu subdistrict, are very beautiful. On either side of the narrow road, an expanse of savannah stretches wide. During the brief rainy season, herds of the small, brown sandalwood pony and large, white, humped cattle graze freely. It is a green and neat landscape, with short grass, scattered shrubs and a few clumps of tall trees, such as kehi (Lannea coromandelica) and kosambi (Scheilechera oleosa).

At first glance, the grass looks deliberately planted, although in reality it and some of the woody species regenerate naturally in the rocky, limestone soil. Some limestone outcrops appear on the surface, reaching heights of 1 to 3 meters, giving the impression of a stone forest.

This charming landscape, unfortunately, does not promise a decent living for the people who inhabit it. They live in poverty because the productivity of the land is very low. Most of the people have difficulty even finding sufficient clean water; some villages have no water sources at all. The limited tree cover in the rocky landscape results in limited capacity to store water. The island has been largely deforested, beginning with the Dutch in the 1700s exploiting the sandalwood and continuing after independence up until the early 2000s, by which time there was nothing left to take.

In response to these at once beautiful and harsh conditions, Wahana Visi Indonesia in partnership with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and Lutheran World Relief are developing a model of environmental and landscape restoration that incorporates improving the livelihoods of the people. With support from the Australian Government, ICRAF’s role in the Indonesia Rural Economic Development project, part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA), is to help farmers establish trees that they have prioritized as economically, culturally or environmentally important.

A high savannah view is seen in Sumba, Indonesia. Photo by R. Finlayson/ICRAF

Tree seedlings produced in community and farmers’ nurseries are planted on private or community land and can also be sold to earn additional income while waiting for the saplings to grow to harvest age.

Improving land and environmental functions by empowering local people — whether men or women — is not easy to do. Understanding the socio-cultural issues in a community is important, especially the roles of women because they are often an overlooked resource who can make a significant contribution. Men and women have different strategies and approaches to valuing, using and maintaining the environment to sustain their livelihoods.

In Sumba, ICRAF conducted a gender study that did indeed find great potential for the involvement of women in landscape restoration. Sumbanese women play very important roles in the management of land and natural resources, although they are frequently not visible. They are tough and work actively on their land, in addition to their household tasks, providing important contributions to planting and harvesting, work that requires intense labor.

They are also involved in managing chickens, pigs and dogs and, particularly, with the management of waste from cattle and goats. Women are responsible for providing water for all the livestock. Yet despite their significant roles, few women have opportunities to receive agricultural training. They are usually involved in support roles, such as preparing meals for the training session.

Partly this is a class issue in that Sumba is traditionally a stratified society and social classes remain important in some villages. The classes are closely related to the management of land and natural resources. The maramba are the highest social group, consisting of ‘nobles’ who control large amounts of natural resources. The kabihu is the class of ordinary people, who conduct their own economic activities freely. Ata are indentured laborers or slaves who attend on the maramba. The ata are usually supported financially by the maramba but they cannot freely choose their work.

Vel and Makambombu (2009) stated that unmarried ata women and men have weak positions in local customary law so their role in making decisions is limited. This social structure is now not as strong, with many villages dominated by the independent kabihu. The ata, vassals of the maramba, are declining in number. The times are changing.

Women learn to graft tree seedlings. Photo by R. Finlayson/ICRAF

The role of women is also gaining greater general recognition. Two women were selected to join a seven-member team, led by ICRAF, that visited the much larger island of Sulawesi, because they were leading farmers and key community members.

The visit, and subsequent land-management activities involving more women, has led to wider recognition of the unique knowledge and experience held by women; it is now openly acknowledged that women have knowledge not readily available to men. They are able to participate in nursery activities without any cultural barrier stopping them from leaving their villages.

However, women’s involvement in public life is still limited. Public meetings remain the domain of men, with most women too shy to express their ideas and argue their case. But in training sessions divided into groups by gender, women are more open in expressing their views. It is reasonable from this to conclude that women’s involvement in public life strengthens their opportunities and their confidence in sharing their knowledge.

ICRAF’s gender study recommended some strategic approaches to increase women’s visibility and involvement. First, to continue raising local awareness of women’s unique knowledge and facilitate their involvement in decision-making in public life, particularly for restoring landscapes and improving livelihoods. But any changes to women’s roles should not increase their burden. Second, encourage an increase in men’s involvement in domestic activities so that women and men can work together both inside and outside the household.

Practical approaches include women being in charge of filling planting media, sowing seeds, watering, transferring seeds to media, and weed control.

Meanwhile, men could be responsible for the preparation of the nurseries, such as preparing the land, building the shade house, preparing the soil and manure for the planting media, and ensuring water was available. Women could also be more actively involved in accessing information and agricultural extension services, for example, organizing more training to fit women’s availability and, for certain activities, separate men and women into different groups.

In many parts of the world, including Sumba, it has often been easily overlooked that local communities who manage land are not only made up of men. Restoring the functions of a landscape must involve all members of a community who live and work in it and take into account the varying details of the social order.

Communities are the main actors in their own development because they are the ones who best understand the local physical, social and cultural environment, which are all important factors in restoration. Understanding the role of women and men as similar yet unique actors is necessary for developing sound strategies for managing land and natural resources, including restoration.

By Elok Mulyoutami, edited by Rob Finlayson, originally published at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World.

This research forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry. We would like to thank all donors who support this work through their contributions to the CGIAR Fund.

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