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Criteria used to select villages:
Potential villages identified first through existing base maps and national census statistics
Characteristics later checked in the field and through discussions with local partners
In Kapuas Hulu, Borneo, it was sometimes difficult to find 10 villages within a 10 km2 square sample
In Jambi, Sumatra, the density of villages is higher
Dusun (hamlets) are treated as separate villages
In Borneo researchers tried to ensure a balance between villages according to the distance to the road and market access
In Sumatra researchers tried to ensure a balance between traditional local villages and new settlements inhabited mainly by migrants

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