Artocarpus heterophyllus L.


Common names
English (Jackfruit); Bengali (Kanthal); Filipino (Nancas); Indonesian (Nangka)
Jackfruit, seeds, male flowers and young leaf shoots
Download infographic

Notice: Undefined variable: post_id in /home/ft4user/ on line 221

Tree info

Dimensions in meters Up to 30 m in height
Maturity of tree before yields 4–7 years
Productivity lifetime Jackfruit trees are perennials and can produce fruit for 30–60 years. The tree itself can live up to 100 years.
Seasonality Depending on the latitude, jackfruits ripen from March–June, April–September or June–August.
Production zones and cultivation methods Jackfruit grows well in humid lowland tropical areas, at an elevation below 1,000 metres, with a mean annual temperature of 24 – 28°C. A mature jack tree produces about 200 fruits per year, with older trees bearing up to 500 fruits in a year. These are the largest fruits of all species, reaching as much as 55 kg in weight and 90 cm in length.


Per 100 g edible portion (EP) pulp

Jackfruit is a healthful source of vitamin C, potassium, and dietary fibre.
Energy (kcal) 91 kcal
% Daily Value (DV) *
Macronutrients Protein: 1.6 g 3 %
Fats: 0.5 g 1 %
Carbohydrates: 18.9 g 7 %
Key Minerals Potassium: 386 mg 8 %
Magnesium: 27 mg 6 %
Zinc: 0.6 mg  5 %
Iron: 0.4 mg 2 %
Key Vitamins Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C): 14 mg 16%
Folate (Vitamin B9): 24 mcg   6 %
Niacin (Vitamin B3): 0.7 mg  4 %
Other Dietary fibre: 2.2 g  8 %
*All Daily Recommended Values are calculated using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s recommendation guide.


India, Malaysia, Central and Eastern Africa, the Caribbean, Florida, Brazil, Australia, Puerto Rico and many Pacific Islands.


These king-sized, spiky fruits can be harvested and consumed before they ripen; at this stage, they are often consumed in savoury dishes and must be cooked before being eaten. Once matured, fruits may be consumed raw or processed to make juice, chutney, jam, jelly and pickles. Its seeds can be ground into flour and turned into biscuits. Roasted seeds are said to taste like chestnuts.

Young leaf shoots and male flowers from the jack tree are also edible. The leaf shoots can be cooked in soups and stews while the flowers are added to chilli-based condiments.

Jackfruit could help alleviate food and nutritional insecurity around the world due to its high yields and ecological versatility. It is widely consumed in rural areas, and some researchers believe jackfruit could replace wheat, corn and other staple crops which are threatened by rising temperatures and unpredictable rainfall brought about by climate change.

Due to the excitement surrounding this widely-accessible fruit, there is interest in expanding the use of jackfruit in agroforestry and household farming systems. For example, jackfruit could be cultivated as a shade tree on coffee plantations or intercropped with coconut trees. The species could also be grown in homesteads, community gathering places, by the roadside and in orchard plantations.

In western markets, jackfruit is becoming increasingly popular for its meat-like texture and used to make vegan products. The demand for this fruit as a health-conscious product could spur greater markets and economic growth for rural cultivators.

A. heterophyllus is also a suitable species for reforestation and land restoration projects. It has a wide-ranging root system, which helps to control floods and soil erosion both in the wild and in agroforestry on farms.

The golden-yellow timber of A. heterophyllus is popular for building furniture and houses because it is resistant to termites, fungus and bacterial rot. It is classified as a medium-hardwood and favoured above teak for many types of construction. The wood will take on a reddish colour as it ages.

Its medicinal properties are also celebrated in Ayurveda, a traditional medicine practice originating in India. The plant is reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

Jackfruit is currently the national fruit of Bangladesh.

Scientific references


Back to top

Sign up to our monthly newsletter

Connect with us