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Trees for Food Security


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Trees for Food Security Project goal is to enhance food security for resource-poor people in rural Eastern Africa through research that supports national programmes to scale up the use of trees within farming systems in Ethiopia and Rwanda and then scale out successes to relevant ago-ecological zones in Uganda and Burundi.
Through the project, 5 Rural Resource Centers (2 in Rwanda, 2 Ethiopia and 1 in Uganda) and nurseries to enhance training and supply of improved tree germplasm have been established. The RRCs have provided business opportunities for farmer groups and unemployed youth particularly through grafted fruit trees.
This research forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.

Read more about the project here


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  • FTA events: Training workshop for Africa Tree Finder

FTA events: Training workshop for Africa Tree Finder


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By Roeland Kindt, Senior Ecologist, World Agroforestry Centre

In collaboration with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the World Agroforestry Centre is organizing a workshop in Uganda to train users of the new version of the Africa Tree Finder. The workshop is planned for the first week of April with IUCN finalizing the exact dates right now. Watch this space for more information.

The Africa Tree Finder is a smart phone application developed for the www.vegetationmap4africa.org. The App can easily be installed on a smart phone with the Android operating system via the Google Play store.

Similar to the objectives of the web-based and Google Earth versions of the vegetationmap4africa, the main objective of the Africa Tree Finder is to enable selection of ‘the right tree for the right place’ by combining information on the distribution of indigenous tree species in natural vegetation types with information on products and services that these tree species can provide.

A specific objective of the App is to support forest landscape restoration activities related to the Bonn Challenge, a global effort to restore 150 million hectares of the world’s deforested and degraded lands by 2020 and 350 million hectares by 2030. In response to the Bonn Challenge, Rwanda has committed to restore 2 million hectares, whereas Uganda has committed 2.5 million hectares, Kenya 5.1 million hectares and Ethiopia 15 million hectares.

 In the newest version of the Africa Tree Finder, information is provided on the origin, local names (a key feature requested by local users), species description, ecology, uses, propagation, seed treatment, seed storage and management for species listed in the RELMA-ICRAF useful tree species series. The newest version of the App also enables users to upload geo-referenced imagery that documents progress on restoration projects or that can be used to verify the accuracy of the map.


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  • Altitudinal filtering of large-tree species explains above-ground biomass variation in an Atlantic Central African rain forest

Altitudinal filtering of large-tree species explains above-ground biomass variation in an Atlantic Central African rain forest


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Authors: Gonmadje, C.; Picard, N.; Gourlet-Fleury, S.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Freycon, V.; Sunderland, T.C.H.; McKey, D.; Doumenge, C.

Patterns in above-ground biomass of tropical forests over short altitudinal gradients are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of above-ground biomass with altitude in old-growth forests and determine the importance of changes in floristic composition as a cause of this variation. We used a dataset from 15 1-ha permanent plots established from lowland (200 m asl) to submontane forests (900 m asl) in the Ngovayang Massif, south-western Cameroon. We analysed variation over altitude in two specific functional traits, the potential maximum tree height and the wood density. Forest above-ground biomass decreased from 500-600 Mg ha-1 in lowland plots to around 260 Mg ha-1 at the highest altitudes. The contribution to above-ground biomass of large-tree species (dbh = 70 cm) decreased with altitude, while the contribution of smaller trees was constant. Contribution of the Fabaceae subfamily Caesalpinioideae decreased with altitude, while those of Clusiaceae, Phyllanthaceae and Burseraceae increased. While potential maximum tree height significantly decreased, wood specific gravity displayed no trend along the gradient. Finally, the decrease in above-ground biomass along the short altitudinal gradient can be at least partially explained by a shift in species composition, with large-tree species being filtered out at the highest altitudes. These results suggest that global change could lead to significant shifts in the properties of montane forests over time.

Pages: 12p

Publication Year: 2017

ISSN: 0266-4674

Source: Journal of Tropical Ecology

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467416000602


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  • Local knowledge on the role of trees to enhance livelihoods and ecosystem services in Ho Ho Sub-watershed, north-central Viet Nam

Local knowledge on the role of trees to enhance livelihoods and ecosystem services in Ho Ho Sub-watershed, north-central Viet Nam


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Authors:Bac Viet Dam, Rachmat Mulia and Delia Catacutan

Understanding how local people view and value the role of trees in enhancing livelihoods and environmental quality is the key to increasing resilience in agricultural landscapes through tree planting. In the Ho Ho sub-watershed, north-central Viet Nam, which is highly exposed to climate change and variability, we investigated local knowledge on the role of trees that involved people upstream and downstream in the sub-watershed. The respondents were requested to identify the different roles of tree-based and annual crop systems in their landscape to livelihood and the environment, and then to rank these roles to reveal the primary function of each landuse system. We found that local knowledge on the roles of each landuse type, both in upstream and downstream communes, was influenced by the household land holding size and the actual contribution to household income as well. This, for example, explains the higher appreciation of acacia than agarwood in terms of livelihood and environmental functions. In the sub-watershed, the average land holding size per household for acacia plantation was 1.3 ha, while agarwood trees were planted in homegardens with a delayed harvesting time (15 years after planting compared to 7 years for acacia). Different responsibilities in agricultural activities between males and females in the family, contributed to contrasting responses between the male and female groups on the role of tree-based and annual crop systems in household income. Men regarded annual crops as a more important source of income than trees, whereas women asserted the opposite. In the sampled households, financial management and private consumption provision were two tasks mostly handled by women, and this likely explains the gender sensitivity. We conclude that local people in the upstream and downstream communes of the sub-watershed recognised well the important roles of trees to livelihood and environmental quality, but in actual implementation, they always prioritised livelihood over environmental issues, especially in relation to tree planting on their own land. Environmental issues were only an option considered for unallocated areas such as protection forest, or for allocated lands not suitable for planting due to physical barriers such as high elevation or steep slopes.
Published 2015 by World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Southeast Asia Regional Program in Hanoi, Vietnam
Working paper 218


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  • Ecological rainfall infrastructure: investment in trees for sustainable development

Ecological rainfall infrastructure: investment in trees for sustainable development


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  • Right tree right place: vegetationmap4africa and Uganda Tree Finder

Right tree right place: vegetationmap4africa and Uganda Tree Finder


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  • FTA event coverage: How can we use trees and conserve them, too?

FTA event coverage: How can we use trees and conserve them, too?


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prunus-africana
Prunus Africana bark harvest can kill the trees if not done properly. Credit: T. Geburek

Laura K Snook, Bioversity International, writes about the challenges and opportunities for rural populations in continuing to use the trees they depend on for food and other products while conserving them, too.

Can rural populations in developing countries continue to use the trees they depend on while conserving them, too? As human populations grow in rural areas of the tropics, the populations of wild trees that provide them with food, fuel, medicines and construction materials are diminishing due to overharvesting and forest and woodland degradation and loss. These declines are closing off future options for sustaining or domesticating these valuable resources.

The challenges and opportunities for making conservation compatible with use were showcased at a workshop sponsored by Bioversity International during Tropentag 2016: Solidarity in a competing world — fair use of resources in Vienna, Austria.

The well-attended event explored approaches, tools and arrangements that could promote both conservation of trees and forests and their better use. Four research projects in Africa and Latin America were highlighted, led by Bioversity International and funded by Austrian Development Cooperation and the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.

The event, described as a ’highlight‘ of Tropentag, explored approaches, tools and arrangements that could promote both conservation of trees and forests and their better use.

Laura Snook, Leader, Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Bioversity International, gave a keynote address, which was followed by four short presentations from panelists and discussions moderated by Judy Loo of Bioversity International.

Thomas Geburek
Thomas Geburek: Photo: Tropentag

Thomas Geburek of the Austrian Research Center for Forests shared innovative approaches for prioritizing which tree populations to conserve across Sub-Saharan Africa.

Presenting research on African cherry (Prunus Africana), which is threatened due to demand for its medicinal bark, he showed how genetic information and climate change modeling revealed which stands of trees, across multiple countries, should be prioritized, both because they conserved the most unique or diverse populations and because the sites would not become inhospitable for this montane species as a result of projected climate change.

Barbara Vinceti, of Bioversity International, noted how local preferences and understanding of rules for access to trees as well as changing land uses affected options for conserving and enhancing use of the important food tree, Parkia biglobosa, in Burkina Faso.

Dietmar Stoian of Bioversity presented insights into the enabling conditions for community forestry that both conserved forests and CITES-listed mahogany trees (Swietenia macrophylla). In the Maya Biosphere of Guatemala, harvesting and processing timber provides income sufficient to pull participants out of poverty. He contrasted this situation with the constraints that inhibit the development of community forestry in Nicaragua.

Timber harvesting, processing and sale in Guatemala has conserved the forest and mahogany trees of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. Credit: Bioversity International/L. Snook
Timber harvesting, processing and sale in Guatemala has conserved the forest and mahogany trees of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. Credit: Bioversity International/L. Snook

Camila Sousa of IIAM, Mozambique described how relearning traditional harvesting techniques based on the use of repellent plants and tree climbing, in lieu of setting fires and felling hive trees, made wild honey harvesting compatible with conservation in the Niassa Reserve of Mozambique. In contrast, uncontrolled logging had left too few standing trees of commercial species to provide a resource base for the kind of community forestry that has so successfully sustained forests, trees and livelihoods in Guatemala.

A lively discussion ensued among the academics, students, development agency professionals and donors from around the world who attended the event, about ways research could effectively support development.

A synthesis at the end of the event drew out several key points.

1) One was that different kinds of science are complementary: modern genetic tools do not replace, but complement provenance trials and other traditional approaches to biodiversity research. We need to understand the limitations of what we can learn from different research approaches.

For example, while some kinds of genetic variation can be seen (larger or sweeter fruit or faster growth), genetic diversity is invisible; laboratory analysis is needed to be able to set conservation priorities that will ensure that this diversity and its associated adaptive capacity is safeguarded.

Similarly, in landscapes managed by farmers who select and protect certain individuals for their traits, they steer evolution; while this leads to better or more desirable yields, it also reduces diversity. Conservation needs to focus on retaining diversity and reproductive processes to allow for continuing genetic recombination so that trees, which may live for centuries or even thousands of years, can adapt to change throughout their lifetimes, as well as passing on sufficient diversity to their offspring to allow future generations to thrive.

The participants discussed if rural populations in developing countries can continue to use the trees they depend on while conserving them, too. Photo: Tropentag
The participants discussed if rural populations in developing countries can continue to use the trees they depend on while conserving them, too. Photo: Tropentag

2) Another key point was that people are central to both conservation and use. It is crucial to involve them and understand their benefits and incentives to promote the kinds of practices and policies that are needed to make conservation and use compatible.

Using participatory research methods allows local people to learn from researchers and share their own knowledge. This empowers everyone to recognize or develop management choices that benefit both people and their resource base.

Several participants described the benefits of developing monitoring tools that local people could use to evaluate the impacts of their management practices. Another point raised was the value and importance of donors’ contributions, both in supporting research and in creating opportunities for “learning by doing”, such as implementing community forestry or supporting second tier organizations that can in turn support communities.

These transformations take time – support may be needed for decades, not just the three year term of a typical research project. Follow up is needed to ensure that research results reach their full potential through adoption of recommendations and changes in policy.

For more information, please contact l.snook@cgiar.org

This research is also funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation.

 

 

 

 

 

 


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  • Effects of climate change and deforestation on potential of carbon sequestration and its implication in forest landscape restoration

Effects of climate change and deforestation on potential of carbon sequestration and its implication in forest landscape restoration


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Presentation by Mulugeta Mokria, Dr Aster Gebrekirstos, Dr Ermias Aynekakulu and Prof Dr Achim Brauning based on a study to investigate the current extent of forest degradation due to climate change in Ethiopia. The study also quantified the effects of tree dieback on aboveground carbon stock and the carbon sequestration potential. The research forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.


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  • Tree cover is good for ground-water too

Tree cover is good for ground-water too


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Photo: Eric Montfort/CIFOR
New study shows that a trade-off between water and tree cover doesn’t always exist. Eric Montfort /CIFOR

By Deanna Ramsay, originally published at CIFOR’s Forests News

It is not often that a study completely upends a prevailing view, and, in doing so, offers hope of improving the lives of hundreds of millions of people.

But that is exactly what research under the CGIAR Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry, recently published in Scientific Reports, has done for the understanding of trees and water in dry regions.

In arid places where water is scarce, the planting of trees is often discouraged out of the belief that trees always reduce the availability of much-needed water.

Yet scientists working in Burkina Faso found that when a certain number of trees are present, the amount of groundwater recharge is actually maximized.

The study is a “game changer”, according to one of the study’s authors, Douglas Sheil, professor at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences and a senior research associate with the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

“We don’t get so many scientific studies in our lives where we see such a potential shift in how we do something,” Sheil said.

“It is very dramatic in the sense that it totally overturns the way we had looked at trees and water availability.”

WET WET WET

Previously, few studies had examined tree cover in the tropics or what effect scattered, or intermediate, tree cover might have on water yields.

Drawing on the idea that trees can improve the movement of water in soil, the scientists worked with an ‘optimum tree cover theory’ that would provide for the maximum amount of groundwater recharge.

The research bridges two contrasting views on forests and water: the ‘trade-off theory’ and the ‘sponge theory’, explained Aida Bargués Tobella of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, one of the study’s lead authors.

The ‘sponge theory’ holds that forests soak up water during the rainy season and slowly release it during the dry season, thereby sustaining stream flow during dry periods, whereas the ‘trade-off theory’—which has become the dominant paradigm—holds that more trees equals less water.

“Both perceptions are true to some extent, but what we show is that the net effect of trees on groundwater recharge depends on the degree of tree cover,” Bargués Tobella said.

“So trees can improve groundwater recharge to a point.”

By testing groundwater levels both near and far from trees in a typical semi-arid landscape over several years, the researchers found that an intermediate amount of tree cover created conditions in which more water was available than if there were no trees or a large number of them.

“Without trees, these sensitive tropical soils lose their large pores, which are responsible for leading water down into the ground quickly,” said Ulrik Ilstedt of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), the study’s other lead author.

“Without these pores, the water flows away on the soil surface or is trapped in the compact soil surface and evaporates.”

“With that said, if there are too many trees, they will still consume more water than what is gained by their soil improvement.”

Other factors that also affect water availability include tree species, soil quality and type, and climate.

This study was done on a type of soil that is widespread in the tropics, but there are other types of less sensitive soils that would not have produced the same positive effects, according to Ilstedt.

However, some 70 percent of the semi-arid tropics have soils similar to those used for this research, he added.

“The most important point of our study is to show that a trade-off between water and tree cover doesn’t always exist, and that more trees can actually improve groundwater recharge,” Bargués Tobella said.

“This means that people could benefit from the many goods and services that trees provide while also seeing improved water availability.”

And with 340 million people in Africa lacking access to adequate and hygienic sources of water, that’s a lot of benefits.

GIVING TREES

The benefits of trees in the seasonally dry tropics for people in their daily lives are myriad and varied.

In particular, in the study area of Saponé in Burkina Faso, Shea trees dominate: the more Shea trees there are, the more nuts local people can sell.

Trees also support erosion control and climate change mitigation.

“With greater tree cover, there are also benefits like biodiversity, carbon and wood fuel that were being denied before,” Sheil said.

“Large areas of the arid tropics actually have no tree cover, and having more trees would be advantageous, as it would give people more access to fuelwood, fruit and many other benefits.”

The findings from the study enable people to control and manage such conditions by planting more trees, Sheil added, noting that it presented an opportunity for donor organizations to start working to support land management that facilitated the planting of trees in water-deprived areas.

For instance, this research is extremely relevant for ongoing tree-based restoration efforts in the Sahel region, such as the Great Green Wall Initiative or the African Forest Landscape Restoration Initiative (AFR100).

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

Goal Number Six of the recently agreed upon Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to increase access to clean water, with the recognition that water is a basic human requirement.

Landscapes such as those studied in Burkina Faso house some of the world’s poorest people, where, as the study notes, limited water not only constrains food production, nutrition and health, but also reduces opportunities for education, work and improved livelihoods.

The finding that increased tree cover in tropical dry regions could increase people’s access to water could therefore have a major impact on their lives, the researchers believe.

“The study needs to repeated in other sites as the optimal tree cover will vary with conditions, and with the species involved, but there is no good reason not to expect similar results in other parts of the tropics,” Sheil said. “I think this will have global significance.”

 

This research forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.

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  • CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry Annual Report 2015: Landscapes – livelihoods – governance

CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry Annual Report 2015: Landscapes – livelihoods – governance


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Authors: CIFOR

With more than 600 publications from research spanning smallholder livelihoods, biodiversity, commodities, climate change, landscapes and many other topics, 2015 was a remarkable year for the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA). In the just published Annual Report 2015, the six FTA partners look back on their most important achievements. Illustrative stories come from the Congo Basin, the Amazon and the Indonesian archipelago, among others. For the first time, the FTA Annual Report was designed in the form of a brochure.

Series: CRP Annual Report

Publisher: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia

Publication Year: 2016

Also published at Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

 


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  • From knowing to reaping benefits from trees in the Philippines

From knowing to reaping benefits from trees in the Philippines


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By Amy Cruz, originally published at Agroforestry World Blog

1557-12Capacity-building programs are recommended for enhancing farmers’ awareness of the ecosystem services trees provide in the Molawin-Dampalit Watershed, Philippines. A heightened awareness would then influence the farmers to integrate trees in their farms.

A team of researchers from the University of the Philippines Los Baños Institute of Agroforestry and the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Philippines found that farmers in the Molawin-Dampalit Watershed in the province of Laguna recognize the ecological and economic value of integrating trees into their production systems. However, the researchers also recommended capacity-building programs to enhance the benefits farmers and others get from trees.

The study was conducted as a part of the ICRAF-led project, Documenting Adaptation Strategies and Coping Responses of Smallholder Farmers and the Role of Trees in Enhancing Resilience at Selected Watersheds in the Philippines, with support from the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry. Focus-group discussions and semi-structured interviews were used to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of the farmers and their knowledge of ecosystem services.

Out of the 104 farmer respondents from six ‘barangays’ or communities representing the upland, lowland and coastal ecosystems of the watershed, 59% were aged 51 years-old and above. Most of the farms (75%) were located on public land, with of 90% of these sized 3 hectares or less. Farmers from the lowland areas usually grew annual crops while upland farms had more trees, with only a few annual crops on their farms.

In the discussion groups, the farmers identified ecosystem services they received from the trees planted on- and off-farm. They identified provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services, as categorized by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. The research team then classified the provisioning services (such as sources of food and firewood) as the economic role of trees. The regulating (for example, providing shade and oxygen, and regulating microclimates) and supporting services (for example, controlling soil erosion) made up the ecological role of trees.

To enhance the ecosystem services that the farmers recognized through their experience with trees, research, extension and development programs that strengthened the capabilities of the farmers could be carried out.

 

Read full blog at Agroforestry World Blog


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  • Annual Report 2012: Forests, Trees and Agroforestry

Annual Report 2012: Forests, Trees and Agroforestry


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  • Gender strategy for the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP-FTA)

Gender strategy for the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP-FTA)


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  • Poster of gender research in forest, trees and agroforestry: Livelihoods, landscapes and governance

Poster of gender research in forest, trees and agroforestry: Livelihoods, landscapes and governance


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  • CIFOR Proposal Assessment Tool on Gender for Managers or Reviewers: Has this proposal demonstrated appropriate attention to gender issues?

CIFOR Proposal Assessment Tool on Gender for Managers or Reviewers: Has this proposal demonstrated appropriate attention to gender issues?


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