How attractive is bioenergy production on degraded land? Landowner perceptions in Indonesia
Bioenergy is promising form of renewable energy which potentially has economic, social and environmental benefits. However, its production erodes its environmental benign due to land use competition. Recently, bioenergy production on degraded lands has gained global interest because of its potential to provide multiple benefits: to meet energy demand, improve degraded environment, and to enhance people' livelihood. These benefits have attracted many countries to promote bioenergy consumption and support technology, knowledge and policies in relate to its production. However, the production would be not feasible without active landowner participation. This paper presents study on investigating factors affecting landowner’ preferences for bioenergy production by analyzing 150 landowners with ex-fire experience on their lands in Central Kalimantan Indonesia using Firth’s logistic regression model. The results indicate that bioenergy production on degraded land using energy species, nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) gains less landowner preference (8%). Majority of them (76%) preferred well-known species such as sengon (Albizia chinensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) for the restoration of degraded land and a readily available market. Landowner preferred nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) are particular landowners revealed a capacity to handle the uncertainty of the bioenergy market because they had additional jobs and income, had migrated from Java where nyamplung is prevalent, and preferred agricultural extension to improve their technical capacity. These results contribute to identifying key conditions for a bottom-up approach to bioenergy production from degraded land in Indonesia: a stable bioenergy market for landowners, application of familiar bioenergy species, and agricultural extension support for capacity building.