One size does not fit all

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Independent oil palm smallholders are particularly struggling to comply with the increasingly strict rules in the sector, says the research article: Certification, good agricultural practice and smallholder heterogeneity: Differentiated pathways for resolving compliance gaps in the Indonesian oil palm sector. The article estimates that only 2.4 percent of independent smallholders in its research sites in Central and West Kalimantan are currently able to comply with the requirements of the Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) certification system.

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