It is early afternoon in Choma, the capital of the Southern Province of Zambia. The air is hot and humid and the clouds are heavy with rain. About 40 people, including three tribal chiefs, headmen from five communities, government officials and scientists specializing in landscapes have gathered to find common ground within a shared landscape. These stakeholders, who share an interest in the Kalomo landscape in Southern Province, have been brought together for a Theory of Change (ToC) workshop organized by Collaborating to Operationalise Landscape Approaches for Nature, Development and Sustainability (COLANDS). This five-year program is attempting to understand how landscape approaches can contribute to resolving competing land-use challenges in order to reconcile livelihood, environmental and biodiversity goals. ToC is a decision-support tool used to develop long-term goals and then map out the pathways needed to achieve them.