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  • Quelles options pour lutter contre la déforestation importée en Europe ?

Quelles options pour lutter contre la déforestation importée en Europe ?


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Arrêter la déforestation importée est devenu une préoccupation majeure en Europe au cours de la dernière décennie. Désignant les importations de commodités dont la production a contribué à la dégradation des forêts en dehors des pays consommateurs, ce phénomène est désormais au cœur l’agenda politique dans plusieurs pays de l’Union européenne.


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  • Comment convaincre les Camerounais d’acheter du bois légal ?

Comment convaincre les Camerounais d’acheter du bois légal ?


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La plupart des Camerounais sont encore peu intéressés par la légalité du bois qu’ils achètent. Sur les 860 mille mètres cubes de sciages vendus chaque année sur le marché national, 75% sont d’origine informelle. Les acheteurs privés et les petits entrepreneurs constituent la grande majorité de consommateurs de bois à l’échelle nationale, selon des recherches du Centre de recherche forestière internationale (CIFOR).


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  • Finding effective ways to ensure sustainable supplies of forest-risk commodities

Finding effective ways to ensure sustainable supplies of forest-risk commodities


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As both global and domestic demand grows for such commodities, they constitute one of the biggest threats to forests, leading to tree and vegetation removal — often due to burning — biodiversity loss and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Frequently, their cultivation through large industrial-scale estates can also pose threats to the livelihoods of Indigenous Peoples and local communities.


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  • Finding effective ways to ensure sustainable supplies of forest-risk commodities

Finding effective ways to ensure sustainable supplies of forest-risk commodities


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Shea nut processing in Burkina Faso. Photo by Ollivier Girard/CIFOR
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FTA communications

Cross-sectoral jurisdictional approaches offer promise  

The increased consumption and production of a range of raw material and commodities, so-called “Forest-risk commodities” such as palm oil, soy, cocoa, coffee, rubber, timber and beef, contributes significantly to global tropical deforestation and forest degradation.

As both global and domestic demand grows for such commodities, they constitute one of the biggest threats to forests, leading to tree and vegetation removal – often due to burning – biodiversity loss and the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Often their cultivation through large industrial-scale estates can also pose threats to the livelihoods of Indigenous Peoples and local communities.

How to secure the sustainable production and consumption of such commodities, without impinging on forests, is therefore a key challenge for public and private actors. But acting on commodities and value chains to reduce deforestation is complex because of several factors.

First, value chains can be very long or complex, making the link between production and consumption very distant. Second, the way production chains, logistics and markets are organized make products difficult to trace, making attribution and accountability difficult. Third, how these value chains operate within landscapes is often not controlled either at the value chain or the landscape level. How public and private actors can effectively work together in landscapes and along value chains is key to solving these problems.

Cable system to transport oil palm harvest in San Martin, Peru. Photo by Juan Carlos Huayllapuma/CIFOR

Expansion of trade in forest-risk commodities led to increased pressure from civil society organizations, consumers, international banks and shareholders of consumer goods companies to develop and implement a diverse array of instruments and tools to promote sustainable or deforestation-free sourcing, and as a way to reduce their exposure to reputational, financial and regulatory risks. Multi-stakeholder platforms and commodity roundtables also emerged, in response to criticisms of government failures.

FTA’s new Working Paper  “Reviewing initiatives to promote sustainable supply chains” focuses on on forest-risk commodities [PDF]
Researchers at the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), France’s International Cooperation Center in Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD) and the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) through the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA) have conducted a comprehensive review of initiatives to promote sustainability including recent “hybrid” initiatives that involve governments at the national or subnational levels to create a better enabling environment for the private sector.

The multiplication of sustainability initiatives has also been driven by the growing complexity and diversity of conditions under which agri-food and timber supply chains operate. Private sector actors increasingly define and monitor their own sustainability performance by using certification standards or by developing their own procedures and criteria.

More recently, a discernible shift from supply-chain-based or sectoral approaches toward landscape or jurisdictional approaches has been seen as a way to meet sustainability goals. However, the growing complexity of policy regimes results in ambiguities and can lead to trade-offs between gains and losses. The findings of the FTA review suggest that many aspects of complex policy regimes are not yet well understood by policymakers, scientists or the public.

Amongst the supply-chain based and sector-based approaches, Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS), are market-driven mechanisms introduced to ensure that social economic and environmental sustainability issues are addressed in the production, processing and trade of agricultural and forestry commodities.

“Although VSS have been widely adopted, they have come under greater scrutiny in recent years and are often associated with high transaction costs (usually transferred to the end-consumers), the need to meet increasingly complex sustainability and legality standards, the exclusion of smallholders, the frequent lack of any premium for certified products and weaknesses in compliance,” said Andrew Wardell, a principal scientist with CIFOR.

The scientific evidence on the economic, environmental and social outcomes of tropical forest certification is encouraging although regional differences do occur. Take, for example, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which since the early 1990s ensures that the chain of custody for production, transformation and sales of timber complies to specific voluntary, third-party audited standards, including covering sustainable forest management and avoiding deforestation.

“There is no doubt that the FSC has achieved a great deal of progress, but it’s not an unqualified success,” said Marie-Gabrielle Piketty, a researcher with CIRAD and a joint author on a review of FSC in Brazil. “Like most sustainability standards, it faces the classic dilemma of balancing stringency needed to ensure the sustainability of FSC-certified forest management, while becoming more inclusive.”

As a result, new public and private commitments have emerged to reduce deforestation and include initiatives based on either sectoral approaches with a focus on supply-side interventions, or mixed supply-chain and territorial approaches at the jurisdictional level. Government-led regulations can guide the private sector to ensure greater third-party accountability and reduce reputational risk.

Timber processing in Yaoundé – Cameroon. Photo by Ollivier Girard/CIFOR

Similarly, environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are increasingly engaged as intermediaries to help companies address social and environmental risks in the supply chain, and to support sub-national governments in meeting their sustainability commitments.

“We need greater transparency to ensure that companies aren’t just paying lip service to environmental sustainability initiatives, but that they can substantiate claims that deforestation has been reduced,” Wardell said.

FTA’s brief on FLEGT-like approaches for West and Central Africa Cocoa’s sustainability [PDF]
To this end, the Accountability Framework initiative (Afi) developed a global disclosure system which aims to stimulate ethical supply chains by tracking progress toward eliminating deforestation and other forms of ecosystem conversion from corporate supply chains. Uptake and compliance challenges remain and Afi released a baseline for 2020 in an effort to improve disclosure for deforestation-free supply chains.

Some state-led interventions can be effective. For example, the European Union Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade action plan (FLEGT), restricts imports of unsustainably produced and illegal timber. The European Commission is currently exploring ways to enforce a Due Diligence based regulation for other forest-risk commodities. Nevertheless, the New York Declaration on Forests (NYDF), a voluntary public-private commitment to halve deforestation by 2020 will be missed and meeting its 2030 target of ending deforestation will require an unprecedented reduction in the rate of annual forest loss, according to a recent assessment.

Seeking solutions

Jurisdictional approaches, which align governments, businesses, non-governmental organizations, social organizations and local stakeholders in specific areas around common interests in land-use governance, are now often considered to have the most potential. They can ensure and provide incentives for sustainability compliance across a whole geographic area, a key issue which value-chains or sector-based approaches fail to address, or often only partially address given the existence of spatial leakage (when some areas in a landscape are not compliant) or sectoral leakage (when some value chains in a landscape are not covered by a sustainability scheme). Some of these initiatives have been developed around the notion of enhancing regulatory frameworks and enforcement, while others constitute partnerships for improving the uptake of good practices for a specific commodity within wider land-use planning and service provisions schemes. Others involve de-risking schemes for financial actors when they invest in forest-risk landscapes or constitute wider partnerships to advance sustainability at the jurisdictional level.

Soy beans, Santa Cuz, Bolivia. Photo by Neil Palmer / CIAT

“Some corporate actors are actively developing place-based solutions not only as a risk management strategy to delink their supply chains from deforestation, but also to benefit from longer term investments in the sustainability of the landscapes or jurisdictions on which their sourcing depends,” said Pablo Pacheco, global forests lead scientist at WWF.

“We shouldn’t focus only on the negative consequences associated with the expansion of forest-risk commodities, but also contribute to the development of a more positive agenda, which supports livelihoods and local people’s rights, protects nature and restores forests in addition to slowing deforestation,” he added.

“Trying to bring together disparate people to achieve common goals isn’t easy because supply chains and jurisdictional governments have different priorities,” Wardell said.

“Several teams – and some through FTA – have started to better highlight some possible impact pathways and shortcomings of jurisdictional approaches, but empirical knowledge remains incomplete,” Piketty said. “Lessons from existing case studies need to be systematized.”

“There’s a clear need to better understand how interactions between state regulations and non-state sustainability initiatives can combine supply chain management and jurisdictional approaches to stimulate wider uptake of improved practices by smallholders,” Wardell said.

“As well, determining how to evaluate impact is a key challenge, due to the many variables that come into play, thus research and science will continue to have an important role to play,” he added.


This article was written by Julie Mollins.

This article was produced by the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA). FTA is the world’s largest research for development program to enhance the role of forests, trees and agroforestry in sustainable development and food security and to address climate change. CIFOR leads FTA in partnership with ICRAF, the Alliance of Bioversity International and CIAT, CATIE, CIRAD, INBAR and TBI. FTA’s work is supported by the CGIAR Trust Fund.

 


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  • Perhutanan Berbasis Masyarakat di Indonesia Perlu Lebih Fokus pada Kondisi Lokasi

Perhutanan Berbasis Masyarakat di Indonesia Perlu Lebih Fokus pada Kondisi Lokasi


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Keberhasilan perhutanan berbasis masyarakat (CBF) di Indonesia dapat ditingkatkan dengan menimbang perbedaan karakteristik fisik tiap lokasi dan memberi dukungan teknis yang diperlukan untuk menyeimbangkan mandat ganda program konservasi dan penghapusan kemiskinan, kata para ilmuwan.


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  • Petani Kelapa Sawit Indonesia Perlu Didukung untuk Peroleh Sertifikasi

Petani Kelapa Sawit Indonesia Perlu Didukung untuk Peroleh Sertifikasi


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Produksi minyak sawit berkelanjutan di Indonesia memerlukan strategi lebih besar yang mendorong petani mandiri mengadopsi standar sertifikasi non-negara yang didesain untuk memberi akses pada pada pasar global dan meningkatkan panen berkelanjutan, kata para ilmuwan.


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  • A tree-powered circular bioeconomy

A tree-powered circular bioeconomy


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Jeff Bezos is hoping his immense wealth can change more than the retail landscape. With a promise to donate $10 billion to select environmental organizations as part of his Earth Fund, the Amazon Inc. founder and the world’s wealthiest person is also the world’s biggest climate activism donor. The fund aims to help steer the planet away from life-threatening climate change and biodiversity loss.


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  • Community-based forestry in Indonesia needs stronger focus on location, study finds

Community-based forestry in Indonesia needs stronger focus on location, study finds


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The success of community-based forestry (CBF) in Indonesia can be enhanced by considering the different physical characteristics of each site and providing the technical support needed to balance the program’s dual mandate of conservation and poverty alleviation, scientists say.


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  • Cameroun : Un nouveau jalon pour la promotion du bois légal dans le marché domestique

Cameroun : Un nouveau jalon pour la promotion du bois légal dans le marché domestique


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Au Cameroun, l’État s’approvisionne d’au moins 13,000 mètres cubes de sciages par an pour réaliser ses projets d’infrastructures tels que la construction d’écoles, d’hôpitaux et d’autres édifices publics. Ceci fait de lui le premier acheteur de bois et de meubles sur le marché intérieur. Une étude du Centre de recherche forestière internationale (CIFOR) montre que le bois légal représente seulement 27% du volume total du bois d’œuvre commercialisé dans les principales villes du pays. L’État s’approvisionne donc sur un marché domestique largement dominé par le sciage informel.


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  • ComMODO: Permainan strategi kelola lahan untuk keberlanjutan ekosistem

ComMODO: Permainan strategi kelola lahan untuk keberlanjutan ekosistem


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Permainan berbagi peran (role-playing game) ini memberikan wawasan tentang interaksi masyarakat terhadap keputusan-keputusan pengelolaan lahan dan keberlanjutan mata pencaharian. Termasuk memberikan pemahaman akan faktor-faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi pengambilan keputusan seperti pembagian tenaga kerja, modal keuangan, latar belakang sosial ekonomi dan persepsi seputar jasa ekosistem.


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  • Indonesia’s oil palm smallholders need more support for RSPO certification, study finds

Indonesia’s oil palm smallholders need more support for RSPO certification, study finds


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The production of sustainably managed palm oil in Indonesia requires a broader strategy that encourages independent smallholder farmers to adopt non-state certification standards designed to gain them access to global markets and improve their sustained yields, scientists say.


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  • Bersaing dengan pasar global? Sertifikasi produk kayu bukan sekedar isu legalitas

Bersaing dengan pasar global? Sertifikasi produk kayu bukan sekedar isu legalitas


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Furnitur dan ukiran kayu dari Jepara dan wilayah sekitar di pesisir utara Pulau Jawa dikenal luas karena keunikan desain dan kualitasnya. Produk kayu – khususnya furnitur – diekspor ke lebih dari 100 negara, dengan tren yang terus meningkat. Pada 2019, nilai ekspornya mencapai 1,7 miliar dolar AS. Amerika Serikat menjadi tujuan utama, diikuti oleh Jepang dan tiga negara Uni Eropa, yaitu Belanda, Jerman, dan Belgia pada ”Lima Besar” negara tujuan ekspor.


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  • Going Global? Wood product certification requires broad legal arena

Going Global? Wood product certification requires broad legal arena


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Furniture and wood carving produced in the Indonesian city of Jepara and its surrounding area on the north coast of Java Island is widely known for its unique designs and high quality. Wood products from Indonesia — especially furniture — are exported to more than 100 countries, at an increasing rate. In 2019, their export value was $1.7 billion. The United States is the primary destination, and tallied with Japan and three European Union (EU) countries, the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium, the country is one of five top destination countries.


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  • Gaming Indonesia’s next move

Gaming Indonesia’s next move


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Indonesia’s old growth rainforests in Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua are some of the most biologically diverse terrestrial ecosystems on the planet. Over the past two decades, satellites have documented a different kind of tree encroaching on the borders of these old forests. Seen from space when the sky is clear, the characteristic deep emerald green color of natural forests is broken up at the edges by a lighter shade from which narrow, rectangular grids crisscross outward across the terrain.


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  • La foresterie communautaire au Cameroun doit tester d’autres modèles non axés sur l’exploitation du bois

La foresterie communautaire au Cameroun doit tester d’autres modèles non axés sur l’exploitation du bois


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En 1994, le Cameroun est devenu le premier pays du bassin du Congo à adopter le concept de « foresterie communautaire » dans son cadre juridique, donnant aux populations rurales l’opportunité de sécuriser un espace du domaine forestier non permanent et d’y conduire des activités lucratives, selon un plan simple de gestion validé par l’administration. Parmi ces activités, la plupart des forêts communautaires se sont orientées vers la production du bois d’œuvre, une activité souvent considérée par les populations rurales comme le meilleur moyen d’acquérir rapidement des revenus importants.


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