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  • Soil management and land restoration vital to meeting climate change and sustainable development targets

Soil management and land restoration vital to meeting climate change and sustainable development targets

Landscape in restoration in Abreha Atsbeha, Tigray, Ethiopia. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/ Ake Mamo
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Landscape in restoration in Abreha Atsbeha, Tigray, Ethiopia. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/ Ake Mamo

By Susan Onyango, originally published at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World Blog

Land degradation impacts the health and livelihoods of about 1.5 billion people worldwide. Further, the annual costs associated with land degradation worldwide is estimated to be US$ 231 billion as measured in terms of loss productivity and the costs to due to loss of ecosystems services.

Given that the state of the environment and food security are strongly interlinked in tropical landscapes, the increasing need for land for food production, urbanization and other uses pose several threats to sustainability in the long term. There is increasing recognition that more integrated approaches to ecosystem health assessments are needed to meet the targets of the 2030 Agenda, including SD 15.3 on combating desertification and restoring degraded land and soil. In addition to systematic and reliable biophysical and socio-economic assessments, stakeholder engagement with evidence is crucial.

The Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon, hosted by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,  FAO, in Rome, Italy from 21-23 March 2017, brought together more than 300 participants to act on worldwide ambitions to preserve soil organic carbon and re-carbonizing degraded soils. The objective of the symposium was to review the role of soil and soil organic carbon in the context of climate change and sustainable evidence, and to build scientific evidence that will contribute to the IPCC Assessment Reports and reports to UNFCCC, UNCCD and on the SDGs.

Leigh Ann Winowiecki, soil scientist, and Tor-Gunnar Vågen, senior scientist, at the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) presented advanced analytics on soil carbon accounting and highlighted integrated approaches for stakeholder engagement with evidence using ICRAF’s SHARED approach, a demand driven, tailored and interactive engagement process. Their presentation,  “Spatial assessments for the mapping and monitoring of soil organic carbon: Using stakeholder engagement processes”, co-authored by Constance Neely, Sabrina Chesterman and Mieke Bourne, demonstrated the integration of land and soil health maps with socio-economic datasets. Kenya’s Turkana County Government’s Resilience Diagnostic and Decision Support Tool was developed using a similar approach.

“We have established maps of soil organic carbon for the continent of Africa and are creating a large systematic database of soil organic carbon across the tropics. These maps can be used for prioritizing initiatives and baseline assessments for carbon accounting.” Leigh Ann Winowiecki, World Agroforestry Centre

Tor-Gunnar Vågen, senior scientist at the World Agroforestry at the Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/Leigh Ann Winowiecki
Tor-Gunnar Vågen, senior scientist at the World Agroforestry at the Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/Leigh Ann Winowiecki

Winowiecki and Vågen‘s  presentation highlighted the advanced spatial mapping analytics available at the Centre’s GeoScience Lab. The analysis is supported by the project, Restoration of degraded land for food security and poverty reduction in East Africa and the Sahel: taking successes in land restoration to scale, funded by IFAD and the European Commission.

Symposium participants also engaged in discussions on maintaining and/or increasing soil organic carbon stocks for climate change mitigation and adaptation and the SDG 15.3 on land degradation neutrality, and on managing soil organic carbon in soils with high organic content.

A scientific document highlighting the role of soils and soil organic carbon management in meeting the climate change and sustainable development agendas  will present an overview of state-of-the-art soil organic carbon monitoring, measures to maintain and enhance soil organic carbon, and recommended methods for monitoring and reporting soil organic carbon.

This research forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.

Also see:

Presentation – Spatial assessments for the mapping and monitoring of soil organic carbon: Using stakeholder engagement processes

Vågen, T-G., Winowiecki, L.A., Neely, C., Chesterman, S., and Bourne, M. 2017. Spatial assessments for the mapping and monitoring of soil organic carbon- Using stakeholder engagement processes, a paper presented at the Global Symposium on Soil Carbon, Rome, Italy, 21-23 March 2017.

Vågen, Tor-G., Winowiecki, L., Tondoh, J.E., Desta, L.T. and Gumbricht, T. 2016. Mapping of soil properties and land degradation risk in Africa using MODIS reflectance. Geoderma. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.06.023

Global Symposium on Soil Organic Carbon website

Project website: Restoration of degraded land for food security and property reduction in East Africa and the Sahel: taking success in land restoration to scale

World Agroforestry Centre Landscapes Portal 

Blog: Put soils first, African Soil Seminar concludes

For more information, contact Leigh Winowiecki at the World Agroforestry Centre: [email protected]

We thank the European Commission and IFAD for financing the project, Restoration of degraded land for food security and poverty reduction in East Africa and the Sahel: taking successes to scale.

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  • Incorporating Bioenergy Production and Landscape Restoration: Lessons from Central Kalimantan

Incorporating Bioenergy Production and Landscape Restoration: Lessons from Central Kalimantan

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  • Nature knows best: Don't overlook benefits of natural regeneration in land restoration

Nature knows best: Don’t overlook benefits of natural regeneration in land restoration

Experts say, one shouldn't underestimate the role of natural regeneration in forest landscape restoration. Photo: Douglas Sheil/CIFR
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Experts say, one shouldn’t underestimate the role of natural regeneration in forest landscape restoration. Photo: Douglas Sheil/CIFR

By Barbara Frazer, originally published at CIFOR’s Forests News

As countries gear up for the “Bonn Challenge” of restoring 150 million hectares of deforested and degraded land by 2020, one solution is getting short shrift, scientists say.

Although most plans emphasize turning degraded land into forest plantations, leaving the forest to recover naturally may actually be less costly and more effective for restoring ecosystem functions, says Manuel Guariguata, Team Leader of Forest Management and Restoration at the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

“Natural regeneration has clear benefits for preserving biodiversity and providing ecosystem services,” Guariguata says. “There was a natural ecosystem in place before the land was converted to agriculture or other uses. So in many cases, letting nature take over unused land again might be the best option.”

Guariguata and other researchers examine the science and policy behind natural forest regeneration and landscape restoration in a recent special issue of the journal Biotropica.

Although natural regeneration is a low-cost way to reduce erosion, protect watersheds and sequester carbon, it is “often overlooked when restoration programs and policies are designed,” according to Maria Uriarte of Columbia University and Robin Chazdon of the University of Connecticut. Uriarte and Chazdon were co-authors of the special issue.


CAUSES OF RESISTANCE

So why ignore something that requires such little human effort?

For one, it can take a regenerating forest three to four decades to reach maturity, and along the way it looks unkempt, Guariguata says. Farmers may not want an area that looks like “abandoned land” on their property and may be tempted to cut it down.

Under the right conditions, however, natural regeneration can make sense for farmers, especially as part of a mosaic landscape that combines agroforestry, crops and natural forest. The key is to determine the biophysical, social and economic conditions that make natural regeneration the most cost-effective option.

Restoration of degraded land in Debre Berhan, central Ethiopia, Photo: Georgina Smith/CIAT

That means weighing tradeoffs, including “opportunity cost”—the income a landowner forgoes by dedicating land to one use, such as forest, instead of another, such as agriculture.

“You have to select the piece of land that’s going to have the lowest opportunity cost, because you’re going to leave it unused for some decades,” Guariguata says.

Steep slopes and remote areas that are unattractive for agriculture are good candidates. So are areas where remnants of mature forests remain. Remnant forests serve as sources of seeds that birds and animals scatter in the degraded area between them.

If the remnants are relatively close to each other, regeneration will happen naturally, with time. If they are farther apart, some tree planting might be necessary to jump-start the process. That sort of “active regeneration” also might be necessary in places where land is degraded from intensive use, such as after many years of use as cattle pasture.

Policies that include training for farmers and extension agents in natural regeneration can help ensure success, Uriarte and Chazdon suggest.


Natural regeneration is not a one-size-fits-all solution, however. In some cases, the opportunity cost of leaving land alone for decades may be excessive, and a farmer might opt for agroforestry instead.

Understanding the tradeoffs—which change over time, with changing local circumstances—can help policymakers determine when natural regeneration makes the most economic and ecological sense, according to Guariguata.

But because there has been so little research on natural regeneration, there is a lack of scientific evidence to guide policy decisions. More studies would allow researchers to compare the results of different forest restoration strategies, both for ecosystems and for the people whose livelihoods depends on the forest, Uriarte says.

“There’s not a lot of quantitative, robust data that we can use to model what would happen if we promoted regeneration in one place and not in another,” Chazdon says.

NO ONE-SIZE FITS ALL APPROACH

Restoration can take different forms, including natural regeneration, agroforestry and mixed-species tree plantations, but there is little research on ecological impacts and less about socioeconomic impacts of each.

“Often, restoration is implemented without considering the alternatives. It’s important to ask how people would benefit and how characteristics of the ecosystems would differ if different options were chosen,” says Uriarte.

Decisions about land use also involve tradeoffs—when land is left to allow forest to regenerate naturally, for example, it will no longer be available for agriculture, but it will eventually yield forest products and may provide a buffer against climate change.

“The question is what you get out of a crop versus what you get out of a naturally regenerated forest.”

The answer may vary over time, depending on changing financial conditions, commodity prices or even the weather. “Whatever calculation a person makes about land use is a constantly moving target,” she says, and further study is needed to understand both the tradeoffs and synergies offered by naturally regenerating forests.

Researchers and policymakers also need means for analyzing the costs and benefits of natural regeneration.

“Most of the tools that exist are directed toward initial planning and mapping,” Chazdon says. “There’s a need for more in-depth tools that consider biodiversity data, estimations of carbon benefits of restoration, economic benefits and other factors.”

Regenerating forests often fall into a legal vacuum, ignored by both environmental and agricultural policies. Research could help point to the most effective regulations for encouraging natural regeneration, as well as the best ways to implement those policies and the most effective financial incentives.

“One size does not fit all,” Uriarte says. “Each country has its own history and its own political system, and what works in one place may not work in another.”

“We often hear about proposals to reforest by planting trees,” Guariguata says. “But when you’re talking about millions of trees, that would require a lot of nursery space and a lot of inputs.”

Regeneration—whether completely natural or with some assistance—can help countries meet at least some of their reforestation commitments at a lower cost.

“In many ways,” he says, “Nature knows best.”

For more information on this topic, please contact Manuel Guariguata at [email protected].
This research forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.
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  • Towards a global centre of excellence for land restoration after mining

Towards a global centre of excellence for land restoration after mining

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Originally posted at ICRAF’s Agroforestry World Blog

The scale of mining activities today is greater than ever but so are its environmental and social impacts. Over the past few decades mining has contributed to millions of hectares of land degradation worldwide. Open-pit mining transforms productive landscapes into ruined wastelands with disastrous consequences for biodiversity, climate, water and soil resources and the livelihoods and health of local people. Yet this is a solvable problem.

We have developed and tested a complete set of planning tools and restoration technologies which can return mining sites to full ecological functioning and productivity. These tools include next-generation technologies for seedling nurseries, genebank resources for climate-smart agroforestry species selection, investment decision analysis and institutional arrangements for restoration and eco-friendly income generation.

We therefore propose the establishment of a global centre of excellence for mining restoration. The centre will implement restoration projects in selected developing countries and work with a range of stakeholders to develop policies and practices on the ground. This could kick-start restoration around the world not only of mining sites but wherever human activities have damaged our planet.

Watch the video below, which forms part of the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry.

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  • The frankincense tree Boswellia neglecta reveals high potential for restoration of woodlands in the Horn of Africa

The frankincense tree Boswellia neglecta reveals high potential for restoration of woodlands in the Horn of Africa

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Authors: Mulugeta Mokria, Motuma Tolera, Frank J. Sterck, Aster Gebrekirstos, Frans Bongers, Mathieu Decuyper, Ute Sass-Klaassen

Boswellia neglecta S. Moore is a frankincense-producing tree species dominantly found in the dry woodlands of southeastern Ethiopia. Currently, the population of this socio-economically and ecologically important species is threatened by complex anthropogenic and climate change related factors. Evaluation of tree age and its radial growth dynamics in relation to climate variables helps to understand the response of the species to climate change. It is also crucial for sustainable forest resource management and utilization. Dendrochronological and remote-sensing techniques were used to study periodicity of wood formation and leaf phenology and to assess the growth dynamics of B. neglecta. The results show that B. neglecta forms two growth rings per year in the study area. The growth ring structure is characterized by larger vessels at the beginning of each growing season and smaller vessels formed later in the growing season, suggesting adaptation to decreasing soil moisture deficits at the end of the growing season. Seasonality in cambial activity matches with a bimodal leaf phenological pattern. The mean annual radial growth rate of B. neglecta trees is 2.5 mm. Tree age varied between 16 and 28 years, with an average age of 22 years. The young age of these trees indicates recent colonization of B. neglecta in the study region. The growth rate and seasonal canopy greenness (expressed by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index – NDVI) were positively correlated with rainfall, suggesting that rainfall is the main climatic factor controlling growth of B. neglecta. The observed temporal changes in leaf phenology and vessel size across the growth rings indicate that the species is drought tolerant. Therefore, it can be regarded as a key tree species for restoration of moisture-related limited areas across the Horn of Africa.

Published at  Forest Ecology and Management 385 (2017) 16–24

 

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  • Strengths and limitations of participatory forest management and area enclosure: two major state-led forest landscape rehabilitation initiatives in Ethiopia

Strengths and limitations of participatory forest management and area enclosure: two major state-led forest landscape rehabilitation initiatives in Ethiopia

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Presentation by Habte Mariam Kassa, Senior Scientist at the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), at the IUFRO Regional Congress for Asia and Oceania, October 2016, in Bejing, China

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  • How do property rights regimes provide incentives for Forest Landscape Restoration? Evidence from Nepal, China and Ethiopia

How do property rights regimes provide incentives for Forest Landscape Restoration? Evidence from Nepal, China and Ethiopia

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Presentation by Peter Cronkleton, Senior Scientist at the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), at IUFRO Regional Congress for Asia and Oceania, October 2016, in Bejing, China.

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  • FTA event coverage: ‘Landscape restoration is about gender equality’--Wanjira Mathai

FTA event coverage: ‘Landscape restoration is about gender equality’–Wanjira Mathai

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By Leona Liu, originally published at CIFOR’s Forests News

Wanjira Mathai is the Director of Partnerships for Women’s Entrepreneurship in Renewables (wPOWER) at the Wangari Maathai Institute (WMI). She previously directed International Affairs at Green Belt Movement (GBM), which was founded by her mother, the late Nobel Peace Laureate Wangari Maathai.

She spoke to the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) at the Global Landscapes Forum about gender and climate change, and the need to empower women in order to achieve the targets set out by the Paris Agreement.

As co-chair of the Global Restoration Council, Mathai also discussed the importance of landscape restoration and why it is crucial for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Hear more from Mathai in the video below:

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  • FTA event coverage: Forgotten Forests of the Sahel

FTA event coverage: Forgotten Forests of the Sahel

Revitalizing communities is part of the restoration plans. Photo: Carol J. Pierce Colfer/CIFOR
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The Sahel is a transition zone between the arid north and the tropical green forest that borders the maritime coast, covering a surface area of 5.4 million km2. Vegetation in the Sahel region is composed of mainly stunted and scattered trees, shrubs, bushes and grasses. Sahel, Africa. Photo by Daniel Tiveau/CIFOR
The Sahel is a transition zone between the arid north and the tropical green forest that borders the maritime coast, covering a surface area of 5.4 million km2. Vegetation in the Sahel region is composed of mainly stunted and scattered trees, shrubs, bushes and grasses. Sahel, Africa. Photo by Daniel Tiveau/CIFOR

By Suzanna Dayne, originally published at CIFOR’s Forests News

The Paris Agreement has shone a spotlight on the vital role that forests play in climate change – and for the first time, heavily-forested nations have pledged to support conservation and sustainable management of forests.

But most of the attention has been focused on rainforests.

Dry forests in places like Sahel barely make the news, or tap the interest of policy makers, and yet, more than one billion people make their living from these dry tropical lands.

People rely on these forests, which have an extended dry season, to yield not only food, but also timber, charcoal and other products such as shea butter.

One of the largest areas of dry forest lies in the Sahel region of western and north-central Africa, which stretches from the Atlantic Ocean eastward through parts of Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and into Sudan.

Under the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry, scientists from the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) are studying contributions that dry forests make to people and landscapes in Africa.

“The most surprising finding is that dry forests remain a neglected ecosystem in terms of development and investment focus,” said Terry Sunderland, a principal scientist at CIFOR.

For Sunderland, the fate of the forest is inextricably interlinked to that of the people who live there. Each depends on the other for survival.

“These ecosystems are extremely important reservoirs for carbon,” said Sunderland. “They help maintain a balanced ecosystem and the ecosystem services provided by these forests also support agricultural production in terms of pest and disease control, pollination and other services.”

A discussion forum at the 2016 Global Landscapes Forum in Marrakesh dealt with issues of regreening the Sahel. Photo: Pilar Valbuena/CIFOR
A session at the 2016 Global Landscapes Forum in Marrakesh dealt with issues of regreening the Sahel. Photo: Pilar Valbuena/CIFOR

ROOT CAUSES

The Sahel region is beset with increased temperatures and drought. Even with rainfall, this dry zone may be counteracted through evaporation, according to the UNFCCC. This makes community reliance on the land and dry forests even more tenuous.

The European Union (EU) estimates that in the Sahel region, 37 million people are severely or moderately food insecure, including 6.3 million people in need of emergency food assistance.

And when harvests fail, or forests no longer provide sustenance, communities are often forced to leave their homes.

“One of the major risks is that people will migrate to urban centers where they still will not have enough food due to food insecurity,” said Paola Agostini, Global Lead for Resilient Landscapes for the World Bank. “Eventually, they might even migrate outside their country and still not find a better source of livelihood.”

Agostini moderated the Discussion Forum on Regreening heritage landscapes and revitalizing communities in the Sahel and Sahara at the Global Landscapes ForumThis event, which took place on 16 November, was the largest side event on the sidelines of the COP22.

Paola Agostini. Global Lead for Landscapes, World Bank at the GLF session. Photo: Pilar Valbuena/CIFOR
Paola Agostini. Global Lead for Landscapes, World Bank moderated the GLF session. Photo: Pilar Valbuena/CIFOR

ON THE GROUND

Unless the diverse causes of food insecurity are addressed, there will be no permanent solution for the Sahel region. Re-greening has been touted as one way to solve the problem, but there are still many aspects linked to re-greening that need to be addressed, including land ownership and community needs.

“Encouraging people to plant trees is not a straightforward prospect,” said Sunderland. “Reforestation depends on secure land and resource tenure and there are few incentives in place to encourage local people to take the initiative here.”

WHAT’S NEXT?

So how can these dry forests be maintained? How can communities move forward?

Agostini advocates taking a regional approach to solve the diverse problems of the countries in the Sahel.

“Ecosystems don’t have borders, so we need to have a program that connects all the countries from Senegal to Ethiopia and also North Africa using real landscape approaches to ensure better ecosystems services and alternate livelihoods,” she said.

Revitalizing communities is part of the restoration plans. Photo:  Carol J. Pierce Colfer/CIFOR
Revitalizing communities is part of the restoration plans. Photo: Carol J. Pierce Colfer/CIFOR

According to Agostini, the World Bank’s approach is to make sure that these interventions make sense and are financially, socially and environmentally sustainable.

“The idea is to restore degraded landscapes in order to make them a better place to live,” she said. “If real carbon markets develop, we will prepare communities for carbon. But that’s just the cherry on the cake.”

CIFOR-conducted research has identified an urgent need for evidence-based policy on dry forests and the need for more research and data to meet this need.

A 2015 CIFOR study showed that policies that reinforce the rights of the most vulnerable to access key resources and sustainable development programs will simultaneously increase their ability to adapt in the face of climate change and improve food security.

Scientists also found that reforesting lands should integrate the value of trees for livelihoods and diversity that can provide food in times of scarcity. It suggests that the integration of forests and landscape restoration should be improved as part of land-use plans to ensure food security of smallholders in the Sahel.

“We need to develop strategies that are more inclusive of forests in development strategies and provide formal incentives for their conservation and restoration,” said Sunderland.

“If we don’t, they will continue to be denuded and lost, with the associated impacts on both livelihoods and ecosystem services.”

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  • Four unexplored big wins in agriculture: tackling climate change through landscape restoration

Four unexplored big wins in agriculture: tackling climate change through landscape restoration

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Photo: CIAT

By Georgina Smith, originally published at CIAT’s blog

Four solutions lie in how we farm our food and treat our landscapes: this session aims to throw light on some of the tools that can tackle climate change head-on.

During this session, we call on the audience at the on-going 22nd Conference of the Parties (COP 22) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Morocco to consider these:

The first big win: trees on agricultural land could sink four times more carbon. Recent studies show that carbon sequestered by trees on agricultural land is not well accounted for. If it was, researchers argue in this study: “Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets,” total carbon estimates from agricultural land could be more than four times higher than they are.

Yet while carbon stored and sequestered by forests is widely recognized and land cover changes well monitored, carbon stored by trees on agricultural land needs to be measured better. Growing more trees on farm land could be a fast and easy route to increasing carbon sequestration, above and below ground, with a myriad of other benefits.

That entails mapping landscapes to guide decision makers about where to invest in certain management practices over others, and policies that enhance carbon sequestration on agricultural land to benefit farmers and society as a whole.

image-2-trees-on-farms

The second big win is that carbon can be absorbed back into the soil. The stock of carbon in the soil is twice as high as that in the atmosphere. Small changes in soil carbon can have big impact on atmospheric carbon.

This session discusses new research from the International Center for Tropical Agriculture and The Nature Conservancy, presenting an initiative that could offset all CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning that are not already absorbed by oceans and land.

Data and maps show the most up-to-date soil properties from World Soil Information and Food and Agriculture Organization and illustrate where carbon could be sequestered if practices to enhance soil organic matter were widely adopted.

Since agricultural soils, already managed actively, have lost significant amounts of carbon, they could also re-absorb carbon based on soil type and climate. What’s needed are site-specific tools for decision makers presenting the bigger picture on where soils are degraded, and where to invest to improve soil carbon stocks.

A third big win looks at protecting wetland and peatland ecosystems

These ecosystems contain around 20% of global soil organic carbon stocks. But tropical peat fires are a major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions, producing transboundary “hazes” impacting human health, regional economies and ecosystems.

Huge opportunities to mitigate climate change lie in protecting these lands. But they are often under threat from commercial and development interests. Combined with contemporary agricultural practices on peatlands – land clearance, burning, drainage and fertilization – these landscapes and the carbon they store are at risk. How can they be climate-proofed?

The fourth big win shows how improving grasslands can provide a triple-climate-win. Brachiaria grasses sequester significant amounts of soil organic carbon – conservative estimates indicate a 2-3 fold higher annual sequestration rate than in other annual cropping systems.

A growing body of research shows that some varieties of brachiaria reduce N2O emissions from soils, a phenomenon known as biological nitrification inhibition. New research also finds 40% more milk and tens of millions of dollars in revenue are possible for African farmers adopting drought resilient brachiaria varieties.

Wider adoption of brachiaria grasses to improve grasslands has a tremendous potential to mitigate climate – especially in sub-Saharan Africa. But further research is needed to investigate commercial-quality seed in Africa, and tackle climate-related challenges like new pests and diseases.

Unexplored big wins for climate change through landscape restoration,” is a side event at the Global Landscape Forum, on Wednesday November 16th, Ourika room, Kenzi Club Agdal Medina, Marrakesh, 11.00 – 12.30. The session is co-hosted by CIAT and the CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems. 

For more information and next steps on action read our four briefs:

Big win 1: trees on agricultural land could sink four times more carbon.

Big win 2: Carbon can be absorbed back into the soil

Big win 3: Protecting Wetland and Peatland ecosystems 

Big win 4: improving grasslands


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